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List of Presentations

This list is in date order, with the earliest at the top.

The side panel shows the presentations which are on the website, with the most recent at the top.

  • 1966 Mathematical Problems in Chemical Reactor Simulation, ICI Lecture Series, Oxford University, 8th November.
  • 1968 Computation of Reaction Stability, ICI Lecture Series, Oxford University, 4th December.
  • 1968 Integration of Kinetics Equations, National Physical Laboratory, 8th December.
  • 1973 Modelling and Control of Chemical Reactors, Vebechem, Antwerp, 29th November.
  • 1974 Control of Fibres Process, The Institution of Mechanical Engineers Conference, Computers in the control of production, 9th December 1974.
  • 1975 Towards a Fully Numerate Chemicals Technology, Dept of Chemical Engineering, ETH, Zurich, 22nd January.
  • 1976 Application of Research to Industrial Problems with Particular Reference to the Determination of Complex Reaction Mechanisms, Dept of Chemical Engineering, Cambridge, 11th November.
  • 1978 Systems and the Design of Process Technology, University of East Anglia, 2nd July-16th August.
  • 1978 Systems Technology in the Process Industries, Imperial College/ICI Joint Symposium, 11th October.
  • 1978 Control of large-scale manufacture of synthetic fibres, Imperial College/ICI Joint Symposium, 11th October.
  • 1979 Plastics Processing and Engineering, UMIST, 2nd March.
  • 1980 Review of Scientific Developments Applied to the Polymer Industry, 5th March.
  • 1980 Scale and Quality Factors in the design of Polymerisation Reactors, University of Technology, Loughborough, 31st October.
  • 1980 Introduction to Polymeric Materials, National Centre of Tribology, 26th-27th November.
  • 1981 The Economic Significance of Polymeric Materials, Inaugural Lecture, UMIST, 17th February.
  • 1982 The Place of Polymers in Undergraduate Engineering Courses, SERC Polymer Engineering Directorate Summer School, Manchester Poly, 13th-16th September.
  • 1983 Teaching Polymer Engineering to Engineering Undergraduates, SERC Polymer Engineering Directorate 2nd Bien Review Meeting, Loughborough, 11th-13th April.
  • 1983 Polymer Engineering Research Opportunities, SERC Presentation, UMIST, 9th June.
  • 1985 Computer-Aided Engineering in Education, Engineering Professors’ Conference, March.
  • 1985 A Model of Confined Impingement Mixing applied to Reaction Injection Mixing, Dept of Mechanical Engineering & Manufacture, Bradford University, 11th March.
  • 1985 Future Computing provision for the Engineering Academic Community, SERC Engineering Board, 21st October.
  • 1985 Control of Fibre Structures in FR-Thermoplastic Extrusions, to Dow Chemicals in Horgen, 8th November.
  • 1986 SERC Design Initiative, SERC Presentation, Applied Mechanics Community, 15th April and 13th May.
  • Lecture to the National Centre of Tribology, Risley, on Polymer Types and their General Properties.
  • 1986 Polymers in the Design of Consumer Products, Thorn EMI Conference, 16th April.
  • 1986 Management Development for Scientists and Technologists, Industry Year Conference, Manchester Business School, 10th July.
  • 1987 SAFIRE Presentation to Ametex AG, 2nd July.
  • 1987 New Processes for Composites Manufacture, Lucas Engineering & Systems, Technical Centre, 1st June.
  • 1987 Manufacturing with Polymeric Materials, Unisys/AMTRI seminar on Computer Integrated Manufacture, St Paul de Vence, 31 August-2nd September.
  • 1988 Presentation on Process Pathways Analysis to Dept of Trade and Industry, 24th February.
  • 1989 Seminar on Physical Analogy and Numerical Methods in Processing Polymers, UMIST, 23rd January.
  • 1989 Eureka Presentation at BCRA, Stoke-on-Trent, 25th November.
  • 1990 Polymer Composites: New Product Manufacturing Technology in Aerospace Industry, Link Presentation to Lucas Industries Seminar, Shirley, 31st January.
  • 1991 How to improve British State Education Quickly and at No Cost, More Matter Less ArtCampaign for Real Education Annual Conf, London, 14th April.
  • 1992 Systems Technology applied to Process Development, at United Biscuits Research Centre, High Wycombe, 6th October.
  • 1992 Technology in Schools, Engineering Professors’ Conference, Holly Royde, 25th November.
  • 1992 Self Assembling Fibre Reinforcement (SAFIRE) of Polymeric Materials, Cookson Technical Centre, Woodstock, 14th December.
  • 1993 Scale-up for production of the GRANEX process, Everite Group, South Africa, 6th May.
  • 1993 Introducing UMIST Polymer Engineering to Industry, Interplas 93, NEC, 7-11 November.
  • 1994 Integrated Design & Manufacture – the NEPPCO Approach, Preston Transtech Internation, Cardiff, 1st December.
  • 1995 Design and Manufacture of Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites, University of Ljublyana, 21st September.
  • 1996 Systems Technology Applied to Process Development, NEPPCO/LEONARDO program, Thompson Plastics/Arla Plastprodukter AB, Hull, 22-23 January.
  • 1996 Introducing SAFIRE Polymer Composite Processes & Materials, Prosyma Research Ltd, 2nd Ed.
  • 1996 Improving Competitiveness and Managing Change in SMEs, TDC Seminar, Durham, 20th November.
  • 1997 Presentation to Mr Mark Brenner, General Manager (Operations) BPTA Services Ltd, Prof Bae, Prof Park, Mr Lee, Samsun Inst of Science & Technology, Korea, with J M Methven, J D Tonkin and P Hunter, 12th June
  • 1997 Carl Klason Memorial PPS Keynote Lecture, “Mechanisms and Results from Injection Moulding, Blow Moulding, Sheet Extrusion for Thermoforming and Pipe Extrusion”, PPS European Meeting, Gothenburg, Sweden, 26th August
  • 1997 New Products, Improved Processes – Real Jobs, to Parliamentary Manufacturing Industry Group, Houses of Parliament, 25th November.
  • 1998 Foresight in Business, Goldsmith Hall, London, 6th February.
  • 2000 Strix Presentation, 25th September.
  • 2001 Strix Visit, 3rd April.
  • 2001 Presentation to Action Plan Board re PDCU, 31st July
  • 2001 Smartform presentation to Marks & Spencer and S&S, 5th December
  • 2002 Rollet Presentation, 30th January.
  • 2002 NEPPCO AGM, 24th April.
  • 2002 SAFIRE presentations to Amidex, July, September, 24th-25th October and November.
  • 2002 Interplas
  • 2002 Working with the UMIST Centre for Manufacture, 10th December.
  • 2003 Modern Materials in the Service of Man, Worth Probus Meeting, Poynton, Cheshire, 9th January.
  • 2003 “Where we are and where we are going” opening of STRIX Centre, January.
  • 2003 NW Manufacturing Exhibition, Reebok Stadium, Bolton, 5-6 November.
  • 2008 The Development of Innovative Products and Processes for small and medium-sized enterprises, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey, 9th October
  • 2008 Self-organisation of Discrete Fibre Reinforcements in Polymer Flows, Cambridge University Dept of Chemical Engineering, 5th November.
  • 2011 Alternative careers in Chemical Engineering, presentation to Cambridge University and East Anglia branches of Institution of Chemical Engineers, 17th May

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Squaring the Circle

IChemE Medal Winning Paper published in The Chemical Engineer, October 2011

About the value and efficiency of Renewable Energy

S F Bush with D MacDonald

If you would like to see a copy of the text as it was before publication, please click on the link: UKEnergy8

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Rollet Project: Design for Prototype and Outline Costings

Report II on the design of the Rollet

S F Bush


The basic design given in our first report (3 August 2001) is unchanged, but we have decided to alter the initial manufacturing method for the superstructure (the side panels and shelves).

We now propose to form the superstructure side panels by rotomoulding a polythene powder instead of thermoforming (TF) and extruded sheet of either ABS or polypropylene SAFIRE sheet. The reason for the change is that on the initial quantities we are working on (10,000 per annum) thermoforming of extruded sheet would take the manufactured cost above £60 which we all agree is too high. (Note that the price of SAFIRE or ABS sheet is volume sensitive, so this manufacturing route will still be a candidate once volume has built up.)

Besides the cost consideration, rotomoulded panels have distinct advantages of their own:

  1. They will be essentially doubled-walled of low temperature impact resistant polyethylene. As a variant the cavity could be filled using our proprietary ROTOFOAM technology, although the present design doesn’t require this.
  2. Without foam, the side panels will be very abuse resistant: with foam, they will be super-abuse resistant. This manufacturing method can therefore be retained long-term for niche markets requiring this performance.
  3. A second variant is a SAFIRE reinforced roto-moulded skin where higher stiffnesses are required for certain applications. Again, this will NOT be necessary for our main target application – food distribution trolleys. However we are pursuing this variation as a CfM research project outside the Rollet project itself.
  4. We are aiming to clip the side panels together, so eliminating the cost of two corner posts for a three-sided TF superstructure.

The price we have been quoted for rotomoulded panels brings the overall manufactured cost of the Rollet down to around £54. Moulds are around £4,000 each so this is a very suitable approach for pilot full-scale Rollets – as we agreed we should aim for (rather than a scaled-down version).

We have a rotomoulder who is very keen to advance the project. He has provided some useful detailed design ideas. Since he has already quoted a competitive price to make the bases, he will have the strongest possible motive to ensure the whole thing fits together.

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Report on Classification of Spectacle Cases

Prosyma Research Ltd report to Optoplast Manufacturing Company Ltd.

S F Bush


Optoplast Manufacturing Company Ltd are seeking to overturn a ruling by HM Customs & Excise which classifies all Optoplast’s spectacle cases in code 4202 32 10. This code is a subcode of 4202 32 whose description is:

“Articles of a kind normally carried in the pocket or handbag of plastic sheeting or of textile materials” (Ref 1).

Code 4202 splits the articles it covers into four groups, of which the third “Articles of a kind normally carried in the pocket or in the handbag” is the one to which it has been agreed by both parties the spectacle cases should be assigned (Ref 2).

The fifth and sixth digits in the codes 4202 are used to denote specific materials, while the seventh and eighth are variously used to denote either subcodes of the materials or subsets of the articles (Ref 1).

In the present case, the code 4202 32 10 is obtained according to HM Customs because the spectacle cases come under subcode 4202 32, and sub-subcode 10 “plastic sheeting” applies. The other possible sub-subcode is 90 “textiles” and it is agreed by the parties that this does not apply to Optoplast cases (Ref 2).

Optoplast maintain, correctly in my view, that their coverings cannot be described in either day-to-day terms or in technical language as plastic sheeting in fact or in appearance, and should, therefore, be classified under the material category “other” which is 4202 39. So far as classification is concerned, the various supplementary and explanatory notes (Refs 1, 2, 3) make clear that it is the appearance of the outer surface(s) of the articles which matters.


Ref 1: Official Journal of the European Communities (Ch.42), 28.10.99, p.354-365; Explanatory Note for CN code 4202 32 10 (OJ 98/C287 15 Sept 98)

Ref 2: HM Customs & Excise (Linda Chandler) to Malachy Cornwell-Kelly, 2.6.2000.

Ref 3: Additional Note to Ch.42: Commission Regulation (EC) 1624/97, Pub. Official Journal L224, 14.8.97

Ref 4: I C Cohen Witness Statement. Laboratory of the Government Chemist, Ref.ECN/043/00, 20.11.2000

Ref 5: Explanatory Note to Ch.59, Section XI 59.03

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Report I on SEFAR AG’s infringement claim against Madison Filter Group Ltd

Prosyma Research Ltd report to Madison Filter Group Ltd.

S F Bush


The appellant’s (SEFAR) patent specification (EPO-355 400 B2) strikes me as having been drawn up by someone with a mainly theoretical knowledge of filtration practice and textile fabric coated products and processes. The same comments apply to the reasons given by the Patent authorities (Opposition Division) for the decision (21 July 1997) to uphold SAFAR’s patent against the appeal for revocation by Sartorius AG. As it is possible that SEFAR believe that this decision will help their case against Madison, this report looks at the reasons for the decision alongside the SEFAR patent itself and a variety of prior art.

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Scale, order and complexity in polymer processing

Invited paper published in the Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers: Process Mechanical Engineering, volume 214, Part E, 2000, Special Millenium issue, ISSN 0954-4089.

S F Bush


From slow beginnings in the 1860s, the evolution of the polymer industry has been marked in the second half of the twentieth century by rapid increases in the scales of production, by increasing power to control order at the molecular level, and by the variety and complexity γ of the resultant processes and products. The paper reviews some of the key developments over the last 100 years or so with a view to identifying themes likely to be of continuing importance in the new century.

A general model for the cost of a processing technology is proposed in terms of the factors Q and γ involved in producing a given artefact. Particular technologies are discussed in terms of the order in which basic processing functions are carried out. A major trend likely to continue into the twenty-first century is the way in which the supramolecular organization of the polymer chains is increasingly being brought under control, either directly by processing or indirectly by self-ordering properties of the polymers themselves. Self-organization of reinforcing fibres during processing to produce optimal performance of polymer composites is a parallel trend also likely to develop further into the next century. To illustrate these ideas the paper draws on examples from major polymer processes: extrusion, injection moulding, film blowing, reaction moulding, thermoforming, fibre making and coating.

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Polymer-Fibre Composite Cages

Paper to FRC 8th International Conference 13th-15th September, “Composites for the Millennium”

Published as ISBN 85573 5504

S F Bush with D R Blackburn, A J Neuendorf and J M Methven


While much of fibre reinforcement of polymers has rightly concentrated on solid forms, there is a significant demand also for lightweight open structures of the wire-cage type. The paper will report results obtained from a variety of polymer-fibre compositions in wire form.

These wire-cage results draw on the laboratory’s extensively reported work on long-glass fibre reinforcement of thermoplastics and the pultrusion of both thermoplastics and thermosets. However, for the new wire-cage technology, the behaviour of the synthetic fibre and natural fibres in place of glass fibres has also been investigated. The results obtained show that for a number of significant applications these soft fibres are better than glass fibres in terms not only of their formability into wire structures, but also in terms of their elastic recovery from imposed stress or strain.

The development opens up a significant new field for polymer-fibre composites both as an alternative to existing metal wire structures in the food distribution and textile industries and as an alternative to certain solid structures more generally.

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Long Glass Fibre Reinforcement of Thermo Plastics

Paper published in International Polymer Processing XIV (1999) 3, 282-290, ISSN-0930-777X, 1999.

S F Bush

Abstract: Experimental and Theoretical Results for Injection and Blow moulding, Sheet and Pipe extrusion.

The paper summarises the main experimental and theoretical results from a long-term programme of research (SAFIRE) to produce and apply long glass fibre compounds to the extrusion of pipes, sheets and profiles and to injection, blow and roto moulding. The overall objective is to obtain the processing speeds associated with short fibre reinforced thermoplastics with the reinforcement efficiencies associated with prepositioned or prepreg thermoset composites. Extrusion and injection moulding are now in the commercial domain, with industrial scale trials underway in the other technologies.

Long glass fibres are defined by their ability to form lace-like mat structures within the polymer melt which persist into the solid state. Such structures, which greatly increase both melt strength and solid state thermo mechanical properties, can be formed with fibre volume concentrations (c) as low as .0l. The formation of mat structures depends on the number N of virtual touches per filament. A minimum of around five touches is generally needed. From earlier work N is given as A.c l/d. A varies with mean fibre orientation in the mat: for the random in-plane case it is approximately 8/π2, so that in contrast with typical fibre suspensions (c <d/l) extremely strong particle-particle interactions are involved in the melt state.

In the solid state, tensile strength is measured and modelled in terms of number average fibre length (l) and diameter (d), polymer yield strength, fibre distribution efficiency, interfacial shear strength and a specially defined matrix stress magnification factor M. The role of patented fibre management devices in optimising these variables as they appear in the solid state is defined and described.

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Sheet extrusion and thermoforming of discrete long glass fibre reinforced polypropylene

Paper to the 5th International Conference on Manufacturing, Processing Composite Materials, Plymouth University, 12th-14th July 1999.

Published in the journal: Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing (incorporating Composites and Composites Manufacturing) ISSN 1359-835X, Volume 31, Issue 12, December 2000.

S F Bush with F G Torres


The present paper summarises the main aspects and the developments in sheet extrusion and thermoforming of discrete long glass fibre (LGF) composites using the SAFIRE (Self Assembling Fibre Reinforcement) technology. During extrusion the long glass fibres are organised into coherent fibre mats which persist into the solid state, and are able to withstand the deformation process that takes place during thermoforming. A process analysis has been performed for extrusion and thermoforming indicating the main individual operations. Both processes have been studied with regard to their performance with the materials used in the studies, namely polypropylene homo and copolymer, with and without LGF reinforcement. Significant improvements in mechanical properties relative to the unreinforced materials have been found for the extruded sheets and the thermoformed products. Major improvements in processability relative to unreinforced PP have been found for the LGF materials. These are discussed in terms of the coherent fibre mat concept.

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Rheological characterisation of discrete long glass fibre (LGF) reinforced thermoplastics

Paper to the International Conference on Manufacturing, Processing Composite Materials, Plymouth University, Professor of Polymer Engineering, UMIST, 12th-14th July 1999.

Published in the journal: Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing (incorporating Composites and Composites Manufacturing) ISSN 1359-835X, volume 31, issue 12, December 2000, 1421-1431.
S F Bush with F G Torres and J M Methven


Three experimental techniques have been employed to assess the rheological behaviour of discrete long glass fibre reinforced polypropylene and propylene/ethylene copolymers. A Carri Med cone and plate rheogoniometer has been used to determine shear viscosity as a function of strain rate and time at temperatures relevant to the extrusion and injection moulding processes. A bubble inflation test (BIT) has been designed and used to characterise the behaviour of these composites under the extensional flow fields typical of blow moulding and thermoforming. Finally a squeeze load test (SLT), similar to those developed for sheet moulding compounds (SMC) and glass mat thermoplastics (GMT), has been used to explore the rheological behaviour of the long glass fibre (LGF) materials under compression moulding conditions, in particular to assess the relative importance of shear and extensional flow.

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